Which Infectious Disease Is Transmitted Vertically?

What is a vertically transmitted infection?

A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth..

How does vertical transmission occur?

Vertical transmission refers to generational transmission of viruses from parents to their offspring. HIV-1, e.g., can be acquired in utero (via breaks in the placental barrier or transcytosis of cell-associated virus), during delivery (intrapartum), or via breastfeeding.

What is the most efficient mode of parasite transmission?

In conclusion, the efficiency of parasite transmission from one host to another appears to increase with host density for parasites that rely on contact transmission, ingestion by hosts, or vector transmission.

Can parasites be transmitted through saliva?

Vector-borne transmission of disease can take place when the parasite enters the host through the saliva of the insect during a blood meal (for example, malaria), or from parasites in the feces of the insect that defecates immediately after a blood meal (for example, Chagas disease).

What does horizontal transmission mean?

Horizontal transmission is the transmission of organisms between biotic and/or abiotic members of an ecosystem that are not in a parent-progeny relationship. This concept has been generalized to include transmissions of infectious agents, symbionts, and cultural traits between humans.

Which communicable diseases are most difficult to block the spread of?

In some diseases, such as leprosy, HIV, or typhoid, it may be very difficult to prevent transmission, because people may be asymptomatic carriers who are themselves unaware that they are infected and infectious to others.

Is vertical contagious?

Vertical transmission: Passage of a disease-causing agent (pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately before and after birth. Transmission might occur across the placenta, in the breast milk, or through direct contact during or after birth. For example, HIV can be a vertically transmitted pathogen.

What does vertical transmission mean quizlet?

Vertical Transmission definition? Transmission of an infection from the parenatal generation to their offspring. This can occur in utero or immediately after birth (ingestion of breast milk or direct contact during or after birth).

What are the 4 types of disease transmission?

The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle. The portal of entry is the means by which the infectious microorganisms gains access into the new host.

What are the 3 modes of transmission?

Modes of transmissionDirect. Direct contact. Droplet spread.Indirect. Airborne. Vehicleborne. Vectorborne (mechanical or biologic)

Will drinking alcohol kill parasites?

Drinking alcohol might actually kill pathogens in the human gut or bloodstream, much the way alcohol in the bloodstream of fruit flies kills their parasites.

Which bacteria can cross placenta?

Maternal infections caused by most organisms which can cross the placenta (including rubella, mumps, poliomyelitis, smallpox, rubeola, syphilis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, and infections caused by S typhosa, V fetus, L monocytogenes, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) may result in abortion or stillbirth.

What is horizontal and vertical transmission?

In general, transmission of viruses can occur through two pathways: horizontal and vertical transmission. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted among individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission occurs from mothers to their offspring.

Which parasite can be transmitted Transplacentally?

It has been shown that other protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium malariae,28 Toxoplasma gondii,29–31 and Trypanosoma cruzi,32 can cross the placental wall and affect both the mother and the neonate.

What is vertical cultural transmission?

Different types of cultural transmission can be defined. Vertical transmission refers to transmis- sion from parents to offspring, and can be uni- parental or biparental. Vertical transmission does not require genetic relatedness – adoptive parents can transfer knowledge to their adopted children.

Is airborne transmission direct or indirect?

Transmission over distances greater than one meter is called airborne transmission. Indirect contact transmission involves inanimate objects called fomites that become contaminated by pathogens from an infected individual or reservoir (Figure 2).

How are parasites spread from person to person?

The eggs hatch when they are taken into the same or another person’s intestine. The worms or their eggs can be passed from one person to another: directly through the faecal/oral route from an infected person to one who is not infected. indirectly through contact with contaminated clothing, bedding or food.

What is an example of a vertical transmission of a disease?

Vertical transmission: Passage of a disease-causing agent (pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately before and after birth. Transmission might occur across the placenta, in the breast milk, or through direct contact during or after birth. For example, HIV can be a vertically transmitted pathogen.

How Ebola is transferred?

Ebola can spread when people come into contact with infected blood or body fluids. Ebola poses little risk to travelers or the general public who have not cared for or been in close contact (within 3 feet or 1 meter) with someone sick with Ebola.

Is vertical transmission direct or indirect?

Most health and government organizations classify infectious diseases as being transmitted ‘directly’ (e.g. sexual, vertical, skin-to-skin contact) and ‘indirectly’ (e.g. airborne, vector-borne, vehicle-borne, water- and food-borne) [13–15].